The Nanboku-chō (南北朝, lit. "North and South courts"), spanning from 1336 to 1392, was a period that occurred during the early years of the Muromachi period of Japan's history. During this period, there existed a North Imperial Court, established by Ashikaga Takauji in Kyoto, and the South Imperial Court, established by Emperor Go-Daigo in Yoshino.
The two courts fought for 50 years, with the South giving up to the North in 1392.
Interestingly, that period of division between the Kyōto and Yoshino courts coincides remarkably well with the division of the Papacy in Europe, between the courts of Avignon and Rome from 1309 to 1377.