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    Twirling dragon Maciamo's Avatar
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    Jul 17, 2002

    Post List of personal pronouns in Japanese

    Contrarily to European languages, Japanese has many different pronouns for each person (I, you, he/she, we...). "I" and "you" have an especially wide range of translation with various nuances, politeness level and gender. Learning is particularily useful to read mangas. I know the following ones (I am sure there are more, among old fashioned ones) :

    "I" and "We"

    Watakushi : Most polite and formal version
    Watashi@ : most common. Used more by women than men.
    Atashi@ : Mostly used by young females. Sounds cute.
    Atai : Slang version of "Atashi"
    Washi@킵 : Mostly used by older men to younger or lower rank people.
    Boku@l : Common for younger men (sometimes women). Sounds more refine than "ore".
    Ore@ : Used by virile or older men. Not as polite as "watashi". (also and in dialects)
    Onore@ : Used by men. Sounds arrogant and impolite. Also means "self" or "you".
    Sessha@َ : Used by men (formerly samurai). Humble and polite.
    Ware@ : Quite formal and polite, but old-fashioned (except plural "wareware", used in a humble way to talk about one's company).
    Wa(ga)@ij: Literary for "watashi". Still used in the meaning of "my" or "our" (eg : 킪 = my/our country).
    Kochitomo Ƃ : Slang for "we" or "ourselves", sometimes also "I" and "myself".
    Wate : Kansai dialect for "Watashi".
    Chin : Used by emperors or kings.
    Daikou T : Literary. Used by men when speaking in an haughty way.
    Soregasi ^ : Ancient form of "Watakushi".
    Warawa : Ancient form of "Watakushi".


    Anata@M/M : Most usual and polite form.
    Anta : Informal version of "anata".
    Kimi N : Used by men to talk to younger women or children, or to intimate people.
    Omae O : Used by older or less refined people. Less polite than "anata" and sometimes almost rude.
    Temee O : A bit rude and aggressive.
    Kisama@Ml : Usually rude and including bad feelings.
    Onore : Used in a disdainful way.
    Onushi (onoshi)@ : Polite and humble. Used by samurai to talk to people of equal or lower rank. Literally means "master".
    Nanji (namuchi, nare) : Literary. Used with intimate people or lower rank people.
    Onmi g : Literary honorific form meaning "your body".
    Sochi@, Sokotomo@̂Ƃ, Sonohou@̕, Sonota@̂, Konota@̂ : dated variant of "Anata", all meaning something like "hey there !"


    Kare/kanojo@/ޏ : Most usual and neutral form
    Koitsu, soitsu, aitsu AA : means "this/that guy"

    The plural can be form by adding "-ra" or "-tachi" at the end (ex : watashitachi, anatatachi, temeira, karera, aitsura...) or by doubling the word (wareware).
    Last edited by Maciamo; May 2, 2004 at 15:50.

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